MEDICAL Education in India

Becoming a doctor is a dream of millions of students in India. There isn’t any profession as respectful as a Doctor. However, many students aren’t aware of the complete process of becoming a doctor or a specialist. For same, the student needs hard work and dedication. It requires an undertaking to serve all forms of life with application of one’s knowledge, compassion and kindness. No other career is as satisfying as medical where you cure people suffering from illness, trauma, accidents, and disease. However, merely acquiring a degree isn’t enough as it is required to pick a branch in medicine and surgery to become a specialist. Several of the fields are – Pediatrics, Gynecology, Ophthalmology, Surgery, Neurosurgery and Cardiology. We have compiled this article for students interested in becoming a doctor or a specialist in India. This article is an overview of the complete process of the same.

Specializations in Different Streams of Medical Courses

Various courses are offered for specialization in life-sciences. A few of them are given here for you to have an idea:

  • Cardiology – deals with disorders of the heart. He performs specialized work like angioplasty, angiography, and by-pass surgery
  • Neurosurgery – a surgical discipline which deals with treating central and peripheral nervous system and spine disorders. It focuses on primarily brain, spinal cord and nerves. Medical specialists are called neurosurgeons
  • Orthopedics – these surgeons deal with disorders in skeletal structure. Further, fractures and disorders of the skeletal frame are undertaken. He performs therapies and suggests exercise for patients which are conducted by Physiotherapists
  • Ophthalmologists – they deal with human eye and its disorders. They are trained with surgeries of eyes, operation of cataract, glaucoma and other ailments
  • Psychiatry – he deals with psychiatry and other issues related to mind such as mental, emotional or behavioral disorders
  • Medicine – MBBS doctor who gains specializes in medicine and acquires an M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree is called a physician. His job is to comprehend patient’s problems, clinical test results, diagnosing the illness and then prescribing the treatment
  • Pediatrics – pediatrician deals with the children’s health from stages of newborn to adolescents. He diagnoses and performs treatment of the diseases of children
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology – Obstetricians and Gynecologists diagnose and treat the female reproductive disorders. They also perform operations like caesarian, laparoscopies and hysteroscopy. Further they deal with ovarian cancer and other illnesses related to reproductive systems

Stages of Medical Courses

There are basically three courses available for the interested candidates. It is not necessary to follow the hierarchy to become a specialist as one can pursue specialization course directly after pursuing the entrance examination.

  • Undergraduate Courses
  • Postgraduate Courses
  • Super Specialty Courses

Medical Governing Bodies

In India, we have four medical apex bodies which govern the medical professional and allied services. They function under the Government of India and comprises of separately affiliated medical associations.

  • Dental Council of India (DCI)
  • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
  • Medical Council of India (MCI)
  • National Board of Examination (NAT Board)



B. D. S. (Bachelor of Dental Sciences)

Duration of this program is 4 years. 1 year is meant for compulsory rotating internship. Courses taught are -biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, basic anatomy and microbiology. Candidates are exposed to dentistry and hands-on-practice in the final two semesters.

M. B. B. S. (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery)

This programs spans over duration of 5 ½ years and divided into three professional of three semesters. Each semester lasts 18 months or 1 ½ year. Last year is dedicated to compulsory rotating internship. Subjects like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, forensic medicine, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, general medicine, surgery, ophthalmology, ENT (ear, nose, and throat), gynecology, orthopedics and preventive & social medicine are taught.

B. A. M. S. (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery)

Duration of this course is 5 ½ years. Ayurvedic Education in India is under monitoring by the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), which again, is a statutory central government body.

B. U. M. S. (Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery)

This course deals with undergraduate degree in Unani Medicine & Surgery. Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), a statutory government body manages the Unani education in India.

B. H. M. S. (Bachelor of Homoeopathic Medicine & Surgery)

This program is of 5 ½ years duration. It includes one year compulsory internship. National Institute of Homeopathy, a statutory central government body governs the Homoeopathic education in India.

B. V. Sc. & A. H. (Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry)

Duration of this program is 5 ½ years. Undergraduate course is offered in Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. Veterinary Council of India manages the Veterinary education in India.

B. Sc. – Nursing (Bachelor of Science in Nursing)

Duration of this undergraduate course is 3 to 4 years. Specialization is done in operation theatre, cardiac care and surgery. Nursing Council of India governs the education in nursing in India.

B. Pharm. (Bachelor of Pharmacy)

This is a 4 year degree program in pharmacy. Professionals are prepared for pharmaceutical industry, which is a multimillion dollar industry. Monitoring work of pharmaceutical education is done by the Pharmacy Council of India.

B. P. T. (Bachelor of Physiotherapy)

Different medical colleges of the country offer undergraduate course in physiotherapy. Course offers learning of scientific procedures and bio-mechanics used to treat a patient with disability or disease or injury. It is to acquire and maintain motor functional rehabilitation. Program also deals with prevention of malfunction or deformity.

B. O. T. (Bachelor of Occupational Therapy)

This is a graduate degree course in occupational therapy which is offered by various medical institutes. Through this program, professional therapists are prepared whose area of operation is to deal with people suffering from physical or mental disabilities. They are helped to achieve maximum functioning and independence related to daily activities of the body.

B. M. L. T. (Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Technology)

Various medical institutes in the country offer B.Sc. programme in medical laboratory technology. Successful candidates are conferred with B.Sc.-M.L.T. degree. They are the professionals who deal with practical and technical work to aid correct diagnosis and in the functioning of Biochemical labs.

Postgraduate Courses

M.D. (Doctor of Medicine)

This is a three year course which offers postgraduate degree in medicine. Those doctors who possess M.B.B.S. degree are eligible for this course. It is a specialized program in general medicine. Candidates who complete the degree successfully are eligible to choose physician as career.

M.S. (Master of Surgery)

It is a 3 years course which offers postgraduate degree in surgery. Those doctors who are M.B.B.S. are eligible to for this course. Successful doctors can work as surgeon, either independently or under an institute.

Postgraduate Diploma

Various medical colleges or institutes offer postgraduate diploma program in medicine. MBBS degree holders are eligible for the program. Duration of the course is 2 to 3 years.

Super Specialty Courses

DM / MCh

It is a super specialty course with duration of 2 to 3 years. Candidate need to be an MD (Doctor of Medicine). While M.Ch is a 2 years super specialty program in surgery which requires candidate to be having MS (Master of Surgery).

General Procedure for Admissions to Undergraduate Courses

Various medical institutes in the country, both government and private follow norms of eligibility criteria as suggested by the respective university. General terms of eligibility are that a candidate wanting to take admission in a medical college must have passed Senior Secondary Examination of CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) or its equivalent with physics, chemistry, and biology as subjects. Almost all of the government medical colleges offer admissions to Indian candidates on the basis of their performance in the entrance examination. A very few medical colleges, run by government, admit candidates from NRI/Foreign quota.

Such candidates need to contact the respective institute/university directly for admission. Appropriate documents and certificates must be submitted at the time of counselling. Various state boards conduct entrance examinations for admission in medical colleges and hospitals on behalf of the state government. Some private colleges either consider national level examination scores or conduct their own examination for admission.

Stages of Admission

Education Qualification – Candidate must be passed in class XII or equivalent with physics, chemistry and biology from any recognized Indian board (CBSE, ICSE etc.).

Entrance Exam – Candidate has to appear in a written exam for admission in medical colleges and hospitals. A candidate may be asked to undergo an interview or personality test as well. Congregate score of the exam and interview will be implemented for final decision.

Exam Pattern – Candidates can check the exam pattern, syllabus and interview/personality test (if any) in the official information brochure. Candidates can either download it from the official website or buy it from sale centers.

Result – Merit list of successful candidates who are declared eligible for admission will be issued by the examination board.

Final Selection – Candidates will be called for counselling and option filling by the concerned authority. After being selected, candidate has to go to submit certificates, course fee, and physical tests.

Entry Requirements for Courses

Candidates who have passed class XII exam with physics, chemistry and biology (zoology & botany) will be eligible for admission in MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery). Selection is done on the basis of all India competitive entrance examination or state level competitive entrance examination. All India Pre-Medical Test is conducted by Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi. State level examination is conducted by state entrance exam board.

Medical Entrance Examination

  • Admissions in medical colleges of the country (government and private) are made through entrance examination
  • Conducting body or organizations at national and state level will hold the examination
  • Purpose of examination is to select the most deserving candidates for admission
  • Courses are offered in diploma, degree, post-diploma, postgraduate degree and research level
  • On being chosen in the merit list, candidate can choose from a array of choices of colleges and courses
  • He will be allotted admission on the basis of merit list ranking, available seats, and choices filled

List of Important Medical Entrance Examinations

  • Annamalai University (AU) – Medical Entrance Exam
  • All India Pre-Veterinary Test (AIPVT)
  • Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS) MBBS & BDS Entrance Test
  • Association of Management of Unaided Private Medical and Dental Colleges-(Asso-CET)
  • Banaras Hindu University-Pre Medical Test (BHU-PMT)
  • All India Pre Medical Test (AIPMT)
  • All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS)
  • Armed Forces Medical Core Entrance (AFMC)
  • Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)
  • Common Entrance Test (CET)-Jammu & Kashmir
  • Common Entrance Test (CET)-Karnataka
  • Common Entrance Test (CET), Punjab University
  • Delhi University Medical-Dental Entrance Test (DUMET)
  • Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER), Maharashtra
  • Bharati Vidyapeeth University (BVU-CET)
  • Combined Entrance Examination (CEE), Kerala
  • Consortium of Medical, Engineering and
  • Dental Colleges of Karnataka-(COMEDK)
  • Engg., Agriculture & Medical Common Entrance Test (EAMCET)
  • medical education and research, Pondicherry (JIPMER)
  • Mahatma Gandhi Dental College and Hospital – BDS – Joint Entrance Test (JET)
  • Maharashtra Health Science & Technical Common Entrance Test (MHT-CET)
  • Maharashtra Super Speciality Entrance Test (MH-SSET)
  • Meenakshi Academy Of Higher Education And Research (MAHER)
  • PGMAT- Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination Board
  • Pre Medical Test (PMT)-Haryana
  • Pre Medical Test media=””(PMT), Madhaya Pradesh
  • Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences -All India Common Entrance Test
  • Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh
  • Pre Medical Test (PMT), Rajasthan
  • PG Medical Entrance Test, Jammu& Kashmir
  • Punjab Medical Entrance Test (PMET) – Punjab
  • Uttaranchal Pre-Medical Test (UPMT)
  • Uttar Pradesh Combined Pre Medical Test (UPCPMT)
  • Uttar Pradesh Common Admission Test – Dental (UPCAT – Dental)
  • Undergraduate Admission Written Test (UG AWT)
  • UP Post Graduate Medical Entrance Examination (UPPGMEE)
  • Veterinary Council of India (VCI)
  • Gujarat Common Entrance Test (GUJCET)
  • Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University MBBS Entrance Test (GGSIPU-CET)
  • H.P. Combined Pre-Medical Entrance Test
  • Jawaharlal Institute of post-graduate
  • Masters in Medical Sciences Technology (MMST)
  • Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences Competitive Entrance Examination (MGIMS-CEE)
  • SRM Institute of Science and Technology